Laser tattoo removal is a successful application of the theory of selective photothermolysis (SPTL). However, unlike treatments for blood vessels or hair the mechanism required to shatter tattoo particles uses the photomechanical effect. In this situation the energy is absorbed by the ink particles in a very short time, typically nanoseconds. The surface temperature of the ink particles can rise to thousands of degrees but this energy profile rapidly collapses into a shock wave. This shock wave then propagates throughout the local tissue (the dermis) causing brittle structures to fragment. Hence tissues are largely unaffected since they simply vibrate as the shock wave passes. For laser tattoo removal the selective destruction of tattoo pigments depends on four factors:
Experimental observations of the effects of short-pulsed lasers on tattoos were first reported in the late 1960s by Leon Goldman and others. In 1979 an argon laser was used for tattoo removal in 28 patients, with limited success. In 1978 a carbon dioxide laser was also used, but because it targeted water, a chromophore present in all cells, this type of laser generally caused scarring after treatments.
Tattoo pigments have specific light absorption spectra. A tattoo laser must be capable of emitting adequate energy within the given absorption spectrum of the pigment to provide an effective treatment. Certain tattoo pigments, such as yellows and fluorescent inks are more challenging to treat than darker blacks and blues, because they have absorption spectra that fall outside or on the edge of the emission spectra available in the tattoo removal laser. Recent pastel coloured inks contain high concentrations of titanium dioxide which is highly reflective. Consequently, such inks are difficult to remove since they reflect a significant amount of the incident light energy out of the skin.
Before the development of laser tattoo removal methods, common techniques included dermabrasion, TCA (Trichloroacetic acid, an acid that removes the top layers of skin, reaching as deep as the layer in which the tattoo ink resides), salabrasion (scrubbing the skin with salt), cryosurgery and excision which is sometimes still used along with skin grafts for larger tattoos. Many other methods for removing tattoos have been suggested historically including the injection or application of tannic acid, lemon juice, garlic and pigeon dung.
2. It will take months—if not a year or more. Tattoos don't just disappear after a once-over with the laser. (I wish!) I've had six sessions, and I'd wager that I need about five more, despite the fact that my initial estimate was six to eight sessions. It takes a long time to complete because each time the tattoo is lasered, particles are broken down and digested by the body's immune system. The regeneration period is up to eight weeks, and the next time you go, the laser breaks down new particles of pigment. And so on and so forth.
The usual design is comparable to a full-sleeved garment sold by many clothing companies. Why is it so? Well, it is simply because it covers the entire arm parts of the person most of the time. The tattoo design can possibly be a single design that extends from the shoulder up to the wrist part, or a group of smaller gorgeous designs that connect to one another until they reach the wrist part. This has caused the existence of half sleeve design, which only covers half of the person’s arms. These tattoos usually start from the shoulder up to the elbow. However, there are cases that the tattoo starts from the elbow up to the wrist part.
Q-switched Frequency-doubled Nd:YAG: 532 nm. This laser creates a green light which is highly absorbed by red, yellow, and orange targets. Useful primarily for red and orange tattoo pigments, this wavelength is also highly absorbed by melanin (the chemical which gives skin color or tan) which makes the laser wavelength effective for age spot or sun spot removal. Nd:YAG lasers may cause hemoglobin absorption, leading to purpura (collection of blood under tissue in large areas), pinpoint bleeding, or whitening of the skin.
There are a number of factors that determine how many treatments will be needed and the level of success one might experience. Age of tattoo, ink density, color and even where the tattoo is located on the body, all play an important role in how many treatments will be needed for complete removal. However, a rarely recognized factor of tattoo removal is the role of the client’s immune response. The normal process of tattoo removal is fragmentation followed by phagocytosis which is then drained away via the lymphatics. Consequently, it’s the inflammation resulting from the actual laser treatment and the natural stimulation of the hosts’s immune response that ultimately results in removal of tattoo ink; thus variations in results are enormous.
The practice of decorating the body with tattoos dates back to the Stone Age and has persisted through the centuries. Tattoos are common in every part of the world, and in many cultures is associated with specific rites of passage. In the United States, where tattoos are merely ornamental, people sometimes regret receiving them. Studies today suggest that more than half of all adults with tattoos wish they didn’t have them.
We’ll start with this ghost design. In recent years there has been more of a movement towards smaller, minimalist style tattoos, rather than the traditional ink heavy ones. It also shows that girls are not limited to only getting ‘girly tattoos’. The cartoon ghost is a fun, whilst not been too spooky. Smaller tattoos are also becoming more popular nowadays as they are more affordable and often people can get a few smaller tattoos for the same cost as a bigger one. Not to mention they are also a lot easier to hide/conceal should you need to for work.